Book Review, Kalpatrak – by Dr. Moh Dutt, published by Madhu Publications, Budaun, 2007 Price – 84/

Book Review, Kalpatrak – by Dr. Moh Dutt, published by Madhu Publications, Budaun, 2007 Price – 84/-reviewed by Shaleen Kumar Singh

The Poetry of Post-Modern Hindi Poets has by how acquired distinction in both the craft and sensibility, for these poets have lived and breathed in a environment of complexities and eccentricities where Life is both for the winner on loser, where poets come boldly on stage of Democracy and speak what he wishes to and expresses all his thoughts & feelings mingling them with the slight touch of poetic skill. The advancement of Science and technology, challenges and struggle for existence and deep craving to live life in totality has woven the warp and woof of Modern poets. Therefore, the poetry of these modern Indian poets has been social conscious first, then subjective.

Dr. Moh Dutt is an established column of Indian poetry whose poetry is a conglomeration of Marxism and other schools of Modernism, Like Realism, Pragmatism, Rationalism, Criticism, Phenomenalism, Empiricism, Nominalism, Conceptualism, Skepticism, Materialism, Nihilism or even Spiritualism. He, after retiring from a long service of Reader, Dept. of English, has led a stoic and visionary life in which he has played many roles in his personal and social life and also has borne with a number of pains and pleasures. (With his collections – Vidushak, Cheed, Bhan Pratimayen Rakt Gatha, & other Poems, Neend K Jangal (Collection of Ghazals – Jeb Me Unki Hindustan (Gazals of Human & Satire) Yaadon K Toote Taj Mahal, Mehngai ki Goli (Poems of Human & Satire) Kahnee Unkahni, (Essays & Book of reviews).

Kalpatrak is a mirror of ‘time’ in which Dr. Sathi has reflected hues of Modern life. The book which is dedicated to both the father who is alive today but tomorrow will not be and to the son who is not in mortal form but tomorrow will be

iwT; firk Jh dks

Tks vkt gSa] fdUrq dy ugha gksaxs

vkSj mu lUrkuksa dks

tks vkt ugha gSa fdUrq dy gksaxh  ¼dkyi=d½

The book is divided into seven Chapters in which the poet has Oozed out his poetic skill as well as feelings to exhibit the trends of modern Menaces entitled Swakathya, Parivesh – Tera Mera, Jeevit Sandarbhon Ki  chunautiyan, Kuntha Ki Sweekaroktiyan Chehra dar Chehra, Naguals dar Naguals, Ajanme Sooraj Ke Naam as well as made clear the purpose of penning the poetry book when he says –

^^tc dksbZ esjs vUrLry esa >kad dj

esjk pfj= uk;d th mBsxk

vius futh ifjos”k ds lkFk

vkSj <ksus yxsxk fQj ls ogh cks>

tSlk fd vkt rd

thou thus ds uke ij

flQZ <ksrk jgk gS

;k=k,sa djrk jgk gS

tUnk jgk gSA** ¼dkyi=d & 2½

In the section Parivesh – Tera Mera – the poet visions the current Modes of life wherein his singular thoughts about the present scenario are expressed in a conversational tone of poet, forming as compendium of variety of issues of spirituality, (Of BramBhoj, Shradhpind, Tarpan,) to pictures of everyday life (Like that of Nandini’s  dhoti (iSoUn yxh) darned shirt (jQw dh gqbZ), sweaters, broken Houses, lanes,) thresholds, windows without curtain – (see P – 5), from romanticism of Nandini’s songs of Surrender to the foibles of Govt. Administration of ‘Notices’, ‘Termination’, Money, salary, orders of Govt. Officials from Subjective Statements of reminiscences of father when he says –

^^vc gekjs fy, xkWao ugha jgk] firk ugha jgsA

Lusg ugha jgk] dksbZ ukrk laca/k ugha jgk

vc gesa rUgk lcls vyx&Fkyx jguk gksxkA** ¼dkyi=d & 2½

Or to his —questions when he speaks in amazement

^^;s dSls lHkd{k? laln ds Hkou?;g dSlk jktra=?

;s dSlh lRrk;sa? dkSu ;g i)fr irk ugha?** ¼dkyi=d & 2½

Or the paradox and suffocation of modern times

^^;g dSlk mRihM+u? ;g dSlh ?kqVu? vkSj

;g dSlh dky dh gkL;k’in Øwjre foMEcuk? ** ¼dkyi=d & 11½

The poet, it seems has drunk the poison of lives to the last drains and has become a Neelkhant whose voice has become the document and the tone of the millennium. That’s why he discards his own country and exhibits his alienation and urges in the following lines:

^^ugha ugha viuk ;g ns’k ughaA lHkh tu izoklh gSaA

vkvks vc rksM+ pysa nhokjsa] e;kZfnr js[kk;sa

cka/k jgk ge lcdks fu;eksa & mifu;eksa esa]

/kkjk;sa] mi/kkjk;sa cM+s&cM+s i`’Bks esa of.kZr

tks o`gn lafo/kkuksa ds\ muds #[k eksM+ pysaA**         ¼dkyi=d & 11½

The poet laments ones the futurity, retrogressions, weakness digressions inconsistencies, throes and battrays of times, studded sharp glass pieces like pains, deadly black stillness, sunken  atmosphere, passed desires, Moaning and grievances of generations and other heart rending sketches of life. His sense of emptiness pricks the poet:

^^vkSj D;k gksxk mu nnksZa ds vuqokn dk

ftls ge dHkh viuh dfork esa ugha dj ldsA

ftUnxh ds uke ij thuk rks nwj jgk

lgh ek;us vkSj lgh rjhds ls dHkh ugha ej ldsA** ¼dkyi=d & 12½

The second chapter of ‘Jeevit Sandharvho ki Chunautian’ reveals poet’s sojourn of 40 years in his indigenous atmosphere of challenges and disastrous social crisis where nothing is visible except chaos and confusion, where each morning and evening has made the man a broken reed and amongst all this another modern mode which is being announced in the newspapers is finely portrayed by the poet:

^^v[kckj [kksydj i<+us yxrk gWwa] buesa gksrk gS

esjs ns”k dh [kq”kgkyh dk c;ku] cka/kks] fctyh?kjksa]

[ksrksa] gfjr&ØkfUr] dy&dkj[kkuksa ds mRiknu vkadM+s

usrkvksa ds Hkk’k.k vkSj laln dh xfrfof/k;k¡

eaf=;ksa ds Vqvj&izksxzke] fons”kh vfrfFk;ksa dk Lokxr]

v”kksdk gksVy ds fMuj] dScjs] lkt&laxhr]

ubZ&ubZ fQYeksa ds foKkiu vkSj #ekuh xhr**  ¼dkyi=d & 15½

The poet in Sathi grapples with multitudinous stamina on different channels because of which his thoughts and emotions which accompany him side by side, sometimes ebb and sometimes flow, but at sometimes when these channels make the poet more and more pricked and perforated, his voice grow louder and turns into shrieks of Modern civilization, that is every time being crushed under the burned of falsity, ostentations, sycophancy, double standards, skeptic and dubious attitude, mala-fide intentions Malcontent, Maladjustment, Boredom and mawkishness of man and he exhorts in Marxian manner :

^^djuh gh gksxh iSnk ljQjks”kksa dh ,d dkSe

Tksfd nsxh u;k [kwu ygqyqgku nLrksa dks vkxs c<+

vkSj lqnwj iwoZ ds yksxksa dh eqfDr&xhr ds fy,

x<+uk gksxk] dksbZ “kCn] “kh’kZd] iafDr vkSj NanA** ¼dkyi=d & 22½

But the voice of Dr. Sathi gets milder in the next chapter of ‘Kuntha ki Sweekaroktiyan.’ When he, acknowledging the frustrations and foibles of political scenario, creates paradoxes, satires and irony so that the effects of may be more lasting and terms which are so often coined and used should be no more a matter of surprise or amazement to the masses which is long befooled by the so called Neatas or leaders. The feeling of the mass of hypocrisy by the poet is neither sudden nor planned so if we go deep in the words of poet, as the social system and political system of ours have become part and parcel of everyday life that one cannot remain aloof of the tension, chaos and dilemma which is occurring on the contemporary stage of time:

“lqfu;s uk tkjh gS esjk Hkk’k.k yky fdys dh izkphj ls

Cfguksa vkSj Hkkb;ksa] ns”kokfl;ksa & LoxZokfl;ksa

cM+h fpUrk dh ckrs gSa tYnh tYnh ?kVh tk jgh gS

fjtoZ cSad esa lksus dh flfYy;k¡] gqf.M;k¡] fcfYV;k¡

exj fpUrk uk djsa] lQy gks jgh gS fQj Hkh gfjr&Økafr

[kwc c<+ jgk gS cfguksa vius ns”k dk O;kikj

?kj vkSj ckgj fujarj fnu o fnu vuSfrd O;fHkpkj

eje gS ftLe cspus okyh Hknz efgykvksa dk cktkj

ets dj jgs gSa] bl ns”k ds fnokfy,] nyky vkSj Bsdsnkj  ¼dkyi=d & 22½

Similarly the poet in Sathi, moving from the Scylla and charbdis of platitudinous generalization and fastidious vivisection of scenario before him, and watching the mumbo jumbo of repressive and depressive modern political life, throbs and pains to the core of his heart at the predicament of corrupt judicial system cacophonous and cankered society, perversion, corrosion, emasculation and erosion of an age old ethical morality, hypocrisy of moralists, false declaration of leaders, turmoil of traumas of tragedies(that have become a part and parcel of our everyday life), and denouncement of idealism and appears as potent as O.P. Bhatnagar when he creates satire and speaks in a mourning and dejected voice: 

vfHkO;fDr;ksa ds <sj lkjs [krjksa dks mBkus ds fy,

vkSj lqn`<+ x<+ksa vkSj eBksa dks <gkus ds fy,

lSdM+ksa eqfDr cks/kksa us tUe fy;k] lgh ihM+k,a

vkSj gtkjksa jktdeyksa usa L=h dks uaxk fd;k

viuh dforkvksa esa] vkSj Hkh cgqr ls yksxksa esa

eqgQV xkfy;k¡ nh] rY[kh iSnk dh toku esaA

cxkor ds uke ij dye NksM+ canwds laHkkyh

exj bl ns”k dh dkSe tgk¡ Fkh] ogha gS vHkh rdA

fy[kh tk jgh gS vkt Hkh <sj lkjh dfork;sa

vkSj yksx eq¡gQV xkfy;k¡ ns jgs gSa tksj tksj ls

exj dqN QdZ ugha iM+rk turk dh tM+rk esa

mldk HkkX;oknh ladYi T;ksa dk R;ksa gS viuhm txgA ¼dkyi=d & 40½

Similar tone of irony and satire in Bhatnagar can be seen when Bhatnagar exhibits the feeling of uprootedness of the masses:

“Before the British came

The land was not ours

After they left

It was’nt ours

After they left it was not ours too.

The land belongs

To these who rule

The others merely inhabit

The ‘No man’s Land.”   (FF)))),19)

Or when he mirrors the fate of a ‘lover of values’ in modern scene:

“A lover of Values these days

Is a diseased man

Put away in an isolated ward

Consuming himself ideal by ideal

Writing in helpless pity

His own epitaph.”  (T.P.,27)

If we take the poetry of both the poets together and examine the both we will find them similar on many points.

Graphical Interpretation of the Compare and Contrast of the Poetry of O.P.Bhatnagar and Moh Dutt ‘Sathi’

O.P.Bhatnagar                                                                     Moh Dutt ‘Sathi’

Chief Traits Chief Traits
Satiric tone +Satiric tone +
Irony mingled with Myth +Irony mingled with Myth +
Vital Paradoxes +Vital Paradoxes+
Overpowering social consciousness+Overpowering social consciousness +
Concern for time & Future+Concern for time & Future +
Spirituality _Spirituality  +
Marxist Element         _Marxist Element +
Subjectivity               _Subjectivity +

A Bird’s eye view of the above graph makes clear the plus and minus points of both the social conscious poets O.P. Bhatnagar & Moh. Dutt Sathi who accompany each other of the points of the satiric tone, mingling the irony with myth, vital paradoxes, overpowering social  consciousness and their Concern for time & Future but the minus points of Spirituality, Marxism and Subjectivity in Bhatnagar are the plus points of Dr Sathi Who asserts in an ethical mode:

^^irZ nj irZ] psgjk nj psgjk] udkc nj udkc

myVus ds ckn ugha i<+ ldk fdlh psgjs dksA

ugha tku ldk yksxksa ds csekuh thus dk jktA**

Like T. S. Eliot, Sathi admits the individual disorganization of man in modern life, who has started ’sucking the blood of his fellowmen’, the hollowness and the perversion of man are portrayed by him with equal gravity, therefore the poet has acquired all the cheap trends of modern poetry which focus centrally on man and its complexities. His admittance in the following lines exhibits the same:

^^exj tc ls vks<+ fy;k gS eSusa og “kSrkuh eq[kkSVk

dqN vfHk”kIr ijNkb;k¡ esjs thou ij iM+h gSa

vkSj eSa vius [kafMr izfrfoacksa esa >kadrs gq;s

VwVs O;fDrRo fy, ?kwe jgk g¡w uxj uxj xyh xyhA  ¼dkyi=d & 43½

But the oriental philosophical approach of optimism and hope looking at future direction is also a peculiar feature. When the identity of man will be judged in the futurity and it will be based on the perennial quest of man’s identity. 

^^eSa vkne gw¡] euqgw¡ esjh igpku esjs jDr ls ugha

esjs vrhr ls ugha] orZeku ls Hkh ugha oju~

Hkfo’; ls gksxh] vxj eSa thrk jgk viuh

fdlh d`fr&vuqd`fr dks viuk :i iznku

djus ds fy, vkSj dky ds xky esa

ugha lek x;k viuk bfrgkl lesVs&lgsts**     ¼dkyi=d & 50½

The last section of ‘Ajnme Sooraj ke Naam’ is also addressed to the futurity which will be nothing be except the consequeses of present predicament and the poet’s vision grows more and more grimed, shattered and pessimistic, the constant repetition of gesa jksdikus esa {kerkghu fl) gq, demarcates the reader to think and rethink the well quoted, well repeated slogans of man’s achievements to reach to the moon but plightfully denouncing the realities of the ground. The more the poet enumerates the failures of so called achievements the more he seems overpowering to reverberate his motto of man centered alchemy. His narration of man’s fiasco in the race of modern life is mirrored truly when he says:

^^gesa jksdikus esa {kerkghu fl) gq,s

Qkalh ds QUns dkjkxkj dky dksBfj;k¡

;kruk,¡ “kkfjfjd ihM+k,¡ vkSj vk?kkr

vlQyrk,¡] bZ’;kZ&}s’k] QwV &er&erkUrj]

vkSj ukuk fo”okl] vkLFkk,¡ tkr&ik¡r]

Hkk’kk vkSj lkaLd`frd fojklrksa dk yksHkA**   ¼dkyi=d &52½

But the ever developing faith and determination never let the poet down rather invigorate more and more energy and the experience of the poet is worth quoting:

^^vkf[kj ,d fnu ge lcus ns[kk ,d LokFkZ fogku

v[k¡M rst iqat] rirk gqvk niZ dhfrZeku]


prqjkuu ls mPpkfjr gq, rc pkj “kCn

fojks/k l?k’kZ & l`tu vkSj eqfDrA ¼dkyi=d & 63½

These four (fojks/k) resistance (l?k’kZ) struggle & (l`tu) creation (eqfDr) liberation and salvation are the alpha to omega of human life from which the man’s life commences and into which it finally merges.

Again the graph makes clear the whole human sojourn which takes birth from the ‘Virodh’- and after birth the struggle for existence (of Darwin) starts and again the genesis of pain and pleasure from ‘struggle in forms of poetry lead him to ultimate salvation or say the journey from manhood to godhood. Actually in a journey from Amoeba to Anatropous the man has evolved much from his primitive to the Modern times he has acquired several distinctions. The man from resistance of things, struggles for the existence and then creates or say something New called Sirishti and then finally merges or attains Salvation or Illumination.   

But for the poet the attainment of salvation does not simply one to go somewhere beyond human perception, rather it develops into the action and say a perfect action in the interest of whole human community so true poet’s motivation is notable which can be seen in the light of Tagore’s poem “where the mind is without fear’

The poet’s expression deserves mention here:

^tkvks tgk¡ dgha Hah feys rqEgsa

izfrekvksa ds pj.k esa j[kk gqvk dksbZ “kh”k

ozr miokl] dFkk okrkZvksa vkSj dhrZu uknksa esa

O;Lr tuekul] tu thou vkSj

iqjk.kksa ds yksduk;dksa ds vorkj

fl) djrk gqvk fo”okl] #f<+xzLr

yksd ls ca/kk gqvk ekul dk laLdkj

va/k HkfDr iqjkru ls izse vkSj uwru

dk frjLdkj] va/kJ)k vkSj dqfopkj

HkkX; ys[k ije lR; vkRerks’k egkea=

Ekk;k dk nq’izgkj le>uk ugha gekjh

Hkwyh HkVdh gqbZ vkRek,¡ gSa mUgsa _.k nksA** ¼dkyi=d &56½

Then, by and by the pessimistic ebb of poet’s emotion gets milder and he trail-blazes task of a true mentor or leader who pilots man’s confused conscience to obliterate the dark part for ever so that he may relevantly seek new references forsaking the each and every worldly materialistic pursuits.

Thus, on the whole, KALPATRAK of Dr. Moh Dutt ‘Sathi’ is both the sketch and psalm of time as well as poet’s vision born out of the traumas and eccentricities of life. Journeying from various camps of ironist, satirist, escapists, imagists, humorists, romantics, the aesthetics, the symbolists, the poet takes final refuge in the lap of the moralists and spirituals- the be all and the end all of life. He, in this collection, is alive to modern symbolists, so his poem finely dramatizes life situations suggesting the crudities of contemporary social cultural literary climate with a gentle touch of irony and satire making the poem ever more vibrant and viable. Besides the suggestive title KALPATRAK justifies the motive behind the book, (the book which is translated into English by the poet bearing the title-“Time Capsule”). He wishes to encapsulate the saga of time which beyond human perception and senses. The book is both poet’s vision as well as critic’s exposition, therefore needs a close and deep analysis of reviewers and readers.


O.P.Bhatnagar. Feeling Fossils. Dehradoon: Paul Jackson, p.. 19, (1977)

—————–Thought Poems. The Tragic Hero’ Aligarh: Skylark pub.p.27, (1976)

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